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Private Limited Company (Pvt Ltd) vs. Limited Liability Partnership (LLP): Understanding the Differences

Introduction

Choosing the right business structure is a crucial decision for entrepreneurs and businesses in Singapore. Two common options are Private Limited Company (Pte Ltd) and Limited Liability Partnership (LLP). Each comes with its unique features, benefits, and considerations. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the key differences between Pvt Ltd and LLP, their requirements for incorporation, benefits, risks, and more to help you make an informed decision.

Understanding Pvt Ltd and LLP

Before we explore the differences between Pvt Ltd and LLP, let's establish a clear understanding of these business structures.

Private Limited Company (Pte Ltd)

A Private Limited Company, often referred to as Pte Ltd, is a type of Limited Liability Company (LLC). In Singapore, it is one of the most popular business structures. Pte Ltd companies offer several advantages, including tax exemptions and a clear separation of personal and business assets. These companies are distinct legal entities, which means their assets and liabilities are separate from those of their directors. As a result, company directors cannot typically be held personally liable for any debts incurred by the business.

Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)

A Limited Liability Partnership, or LLP, represents a partnership agreement where each partner is considered part-owner of the company. The "limited liability" aspect in LLP pertains to the legal obligations and liability protection of the partners concerning the company. It is distinct from a Limited Liability Company (LLC) and should not be confused with it. In an LLP, co-owners are legally considered partners who share responsibilities in the business. However, the company itself is viewed as a separate legal entity, and neither partner holds legal obligations over the actions of the other partner(s).

The liability of each partner in an LLP is determined by their contributions, which is the amount invested in the business. Unlike sole proprietorship business entities, where a sole owner bears all the risks and profits of the company, partners in an LLP share both risks and benefits, utilizing their individual talents and resources for the business's growth. Importantly, the distinct legal identity of an LLP prevents creditors from seizing partners' personal assets. Consequently, partners are not personally liable for any business debts incurred by the company during its operations.

Differences in Requirements for Incorporation

One of the primary distinctions between Pvt Ltd and LLP lies in the requirements for incorporation. Both business structures have different sets of prerequisites for setting up the company. Below are the criteria for each business type:

Requirements for LLP

  • Details of the partners and managers of the LLP.
  • Residential addresses of the partners and managers.
  • Details of any company acting as a partner in the LLP, including business name, registered address, registration details, jurisdiction, consent to act as a partner or manager in the LLP, and compliance declaration.
  • Proposed business name of the LLP.

Requirements for Pvt Ltd

  • At least one (1) resident director who is a Singaporean citizen.
  • At least one (1) corporate secretary.
  • At least one (1) shareholder.
  • A registered business address in Singapore.
  • A minimum capital of SGD1.
  • Proposed business name.

These distinct requirements reflect the fundamental differences between the two business structures, as an LLP emphasizes the details of the partners, while a Pvt Ltd has specific requirements such as a resident director, corporate secretary, and a minimum capital amount.

Administrative Differences

Apart from the requirements for incorporation, there are administrative variations between Pvt Ltd and LLP. These differences encompass areas such as tax benefits, the number of owners or members, registration processes, and liability protection. Let's delve into these disparities.

1. Personal vs. Corporate Tax Rates

One of the major differences between Pvt Ltd and LLP is the taxation framework. Pvt Ltd companies are subject to a fixed corporate tax rate of 17%, while LLPs are subject to personal tax rates, which can go up to 22%. This variance can have significant implications for the tax liability of the business and its owners.

2. Number of Owners/Members

Pvt Ltd companies may have between 1 to 50 shareholders. In contrast, an LLP must have a minimum of 2 partners, but it should not exceed 20 partners. Partners in an LLP can be private individuals or entities like companies and organizations. Pvt Ltd shareholders, on the other hand, are considered members, and ownership can be partially or fully transferred through the sale of shares.

3. Registration Process and Cost

The registration processes for Pvt Ltd and LLP also differ slightly. An LLP can be set up at a cost of SGD115, while setting up a Pvt Ltd involves a fee of SGD315 (please note that these costs are subject to change based on regulations set by the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority, ACRA).

4. Liability Protection

Another critical distinction lies in liability protection. Pvt Ltd companies offer comprehensive liability protection to their directors and shareholders. In the event of financial troubles or legal obligations, directors and shareholders are typically protected from personal liability. They are only liable up to the extent of their investment in the company.

Conversely, in an LLP, partners may be held personally liable for their wrongful acts, such as gross negligence or misconduct within the company. Other partners, however, are safeguarded from the wrongful acts of their fellow partners.

5. Annual Filing Requirements

Both LLPs and Pvt Ltd companies must fulfill annual filing requirements. This includes submitting annual accounts and annual declaration documents. However, Pvt Ltd companies have additional annual compliance requirements, such as corporate secretarial reporting and the submission of unaudited financial reports.

Conclusion

The choice between a Pvt Ltd and an LLP in Singapore is a critical decision with far-reaching implications for your business. Each business structure comes with its own set of requirements, tax implications, liability protection, and administrative nuances. To make an informed decision, it is essential to carefully assess your business goals, ownership structure, and financial considerations. By understanding the differences between Pvt Ltd and LLP, you can select the business structure that aligns with your specific needs and sets your business up for success in Singapore's vibrant and dynamic business environment.

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